Search This Blog


Wednesday, February 1, 2012

Kenya and the Network

The recent ICC decisions regarding Kenya (confirming charges against four out of six defendants) highlight the centrality and significance of collective criminal action.

In particular, what’s striking about the decisions is the specific organizations that the Pre-Trial Chamber concentrated on, and the recurring legal significance that the court attached to these organizations.

For example, Prosecutor v. Muthaura, Kenyatta, and Hussein Ali, concentrates on the Mungiki organization, and that organization anchors the court’s analysis of the substantive offense as well as the mode of liability in the case.  Here’s how the court does it:

First, the PTC found that the Mungiki was an organization within the meaning of the Rome Statute’s definition of crimes against humanity, which requires that the attack be widespread and systematic and pursuant to a state or organizational plan or policy.  There is a longstanding academic and judicial dispute over the meaning of “organizational” in this context, and a few scholars and judges have concluded that state involvement is required here.  Included in this group are Bill Schabas and the dissenting judge in this case, Judge Kaul.  I think it is fair to say that the majority view (whether correct or not) is that at least some non-governmental organizations (or sub-state organizations) might qualify under this standard, though whether the Mungiki organization meets the criteria is a more specific inquiry.

What interests me is that the exact same analysis appears in the section on modes of liability, when the PTC finds that the defendants (whose charges were confirmed) are potentially indirect co-perpetrators because they controlled an organized apparatus of power – the Mungiki whose members carried out the attacks.

There is some tension, though, between the picture of the Mungiki painted in the crimes against humanity section of the opinion and the section on indirect co-perpetration.  For example, when discussing the organizational plan or policy, the PTC concludes that a third individual not charged in the case, Maina Njenga, “possessed exclusive control over the Mungiki organization.”  However, when the PTC discusses indirect co-perpetration, the PTC concludes that the confirmed defendants had joint control over it.  How is this possible?  According to the court, the control was “transferred” from Njenga to the confirmed defendants.  But did both of the confirmed defendants have control or just one of them?  Did the physical perpetrators really report to both of them?  I suspect this will be an issue at trial.

The second case, Prosecutor v. Ruto, Kosgey, and Sang, does not deal with the Mungiki.  Having no such organization to anchor its analysis of crimes against humanity, the PTC concludes that there was a “Network” of perpetrators who constituted an organization with a plan or policy to carry out the attacks.  This Network sounds rather ad hoc, closer to a conspiracy or a Joint Criminal Enterprise than a state-based organization of the kind that Schabas favors or even the kind of identifiable organization like the Mungiki.  It is, I suspect, an importation of the collective concepts one finds on the mode of liability side of the analysis – a JCE or an organized apparatus of power.  But I question whether the type of ad hoc collective one finds on the mode of liability side is the same type of collective appropriate for the "plan or policy" requirement.

Obviously, this importation is going to be hotly debated.  On the one hand, I’m not sure that an organization needs to have a formal name in order to meet the crimes against humanity standard – that would be far too formalistic.  On the other hand, though, if a “network” of perpetrators is allowed to constitute an organization for purposes of crimes against humanity, it will clearly represent a significant expansion of the concept from its origins in the Nuremberg era.


sabir said...

choose here google play gift card online for free and use them at the google play store online .

Knowledge Of India said...

The economy of any county depends on the balance of trade i.e. export and import and if they are not balanced they serious issue can prevail. I knew about Kenya from past and many of my relatives live there. Golden Quadrilateral

john said...

from the homepage of hack moviestarplanet you can get free starcoins and generator of diamonds.

john said...

I am very glad to read this post. This post is really very well. This post is really very amazing. rubber interlocking gym mats high quality for sale

Waqar Hussain said...

I agree with you completely its becoming more and like dark times.Rich and powerful people do anything and we don't stand up against them.But I like this article.Thanks for sharing with us.Best Mats for Gym

Lee Samsam said...

Very interesting blog. Alot of blogs I see these days don't really provide anything that I'm interested in, but I'm most definately interested in this one. Just thought that I would post and let you know.
geometry dash| sniper games |happy wheels | happy wheels 2 |agario| my little pony games mickey mouse games mahjong |pacman

Netflix said...

I enjoyed over read your blog post. Your blog have nice information, I got good ideas from this amazing blog. I am always searching like this type blog post. I hope I will see again...

- usps tracking
- iphone 7 release date
- youtube to mp3
- abcya

Mai lân said...

I just want to say : why you do not click to play
super mario | mario games
brain games | puzzle games | tetris | happy wheels | agario | abcya
happy wheels the game free | happy wheels | fnaf | fnaf 4

Ranveer Patil said...

This is jonesdruman This blog was simply great post byb you. I really appreciate your blog. Really awesome blog I would like to know more about this. Please give some ideas about your blog. Thanks…………………………………….
Mumbai Indians Squad Captain Name
MI New Team Players List
Kolkata Knight Riders Logo Jersey Images

keven man said...

thank you for your effort great piece of information will benefit alot of people for sure . recuperar dados

Anonymous said...

I have collected great info to this networking article that is really interesting.

Anonymous said...

Children’s mostly plays game in their free time and have fun.

Friv4 Games Online said...

Very helpful advice in this particular post! It’s the little changes that make the largest changes. Thanks for sharing!
i like play games happy wheels online and play happy wheels 2 games friv , girlsgogames , games2girls

keven man said...

Thanks for sharing your thoughts so clearly. ATVs with free shipping

Happy Mothers day messages 2016 said...

top mothers day wishes 2016 ||
top 20 mothers day wishes 2016 ||


Mothers day 2016 FB Status ||
Mothers day 2016 Facebook Status ||
happy Mothers day 2016 FB Status ||

happy Mothers day 2016 Facebook Status ||


mothers day wishes 2016 in Hindi ||
happy mothers day wishes 2016 in Hindi ||
top mothers day wishes 2016 in Hindi ||


mothers day wishes from daughter 2016 ||
happy mothers day wishes from daughter 2016 ||
mothers day 2016 from daughter ||
happy mothers day 2016 from daughter ||


funny mothers day wishes 2016 ||
Top funny mothers day wishes 2016 ||
best funny mothers day wishes 2016 ||


mothers day wishes to Friend mom 2016 ||
mothers day wishes 2016 Friend mom ||
Top mothers day wishes to Friend mom 2016 ||

best mothers day wishes to Friend mom ||


mothers day wishes 2016 from son ||
happy mothers day wishes 2016 from son ||

top mothers day wishes 2016 from son ||

best mothers day wishes 2016 from son ||

yoob games said...

تعتبر العاب تلبيس من اشهر الانواع في هذا المجال وهي بدورها تتضمن عدة اصناف جميلة ويعشقها الكتير وخاصة البنات منها العاب تلبيس ومكياج التي تمزج بين التلبيس وكذلك الميك اب في آن واحد هذا الامر الدي يزيد من جمالها وتجعل كل من يلعبها يستمتع بذلك زد على ذلك العاب تلبيس باربي التي تعرف شعبية كبيرة لانها شخصية مشهورة ويعرفها الصغير والكبير ولهم ذكريات جميلة معها لانها اشتهرت في عالم الكارتون والان اصبح الامر كذلك في مجال الالعاب وغير هذا هناك كذلك نوع آخر مميز ايضا وهو العاب تلبيس عرائس فالجميع يحلم ان يقوم بتلبيسهما لانها تذكرهم بهذه المناسبة الجميلة الا وهي الزواج التي تعتبر اهم مرحلة في حياة الانسان وهناك انواع مغايرة لها جمهور كبير في كل انحاء العالم وهي العاب قص الشعر ليس هي فقط بل توجد ايضا العاب طبخ التي يمكن للجميع لعبها سواء كانوا اولادا او بناتا وهي الاكتر طلبا في النت ويحبها الجميع ومعها ايضا العاب باربي التي تكلمنا عليها بكل انواعها تتنوع العاب فلاش وذلك على حسب كل شخص ورغبته فهناك عدة انواع منها وهناك من هي خاصة بالبنات واخرى للاولاد وتعتبر العاب تلبيس من اكتر الالعاب انتشارا في الويب وهي محبوبة عند الجميع ولديها جمهور واسع كما انها سهلة اللعب والجميع يمكنه لعبها بسهولة تامة بدون صعوبات تذكر كما ان هناك انواع اخرى متل العاب طبخ والعاب اكشن ومكياج و سيارات الى غير ذلك فلك صنف جمهوره ومحبيه ولكن تبقى العاب بنات الاكتر انتشارا وشعبيتنا في عالم العاب الفلاش كما انها تحتوي على شخصيات معروفة وغنية عن التعريف متل باربي و سندريلا وشخصيات اخرى تركت بصمتها في هذا المجال لهذا اصبح يعتمد عليها كتيرا في صنف العاب تلبيس بنات الدي تحبه البنات بكترة خاصة في العالم العربي مما يجعل المواقع الخاصة بهذا النوع تزداد يوما بعد الاخر فذلك ليس عبثا ففي الحقيقة نوع العاب التلبيس من اجمل اصناف العاب فلاش بصفة عامة و العاب بنات بصفة خاصة

keven man said...

Thanks for sharing with us! Another great post, taxi weybridge surrey

Mark said...

I visit your blogs and get updated through the information you include but today’s blog would be the most appreciable.Thanks for sharing your bolg with me Keep sharing your next posts.
24 hours online locksmith grandview mo

professional presentation help said...

Interesting article! It is detailed enough, still if the user is not experienced enough, it would be difficult for him/her to understand the issue.

maria insberia said...

Keep writing the great work, Nice to see your site. custom tees

Whatsapp Gratis Baixar said...

Thank you. It was was very helpful.
whatsapp baixar
baixar whatsapp
baixar whatsapp gratis

maria insberia said...

I am guaranteed relating to this given information you allocated because its really suited to everyone. Personal injury Lawyer Plantation

123movies Movies War said...

i will be always checking your blog thanks


Watch X-Men: Apocalypse Online said...

you got really very useful topics

Watch The Offering online said...

like this topic.

Anonymous said...

Great things you've always shared with us.

Watch Kung Fu Panda 3

Commedia Cineblog01 said...

Your blog helped me to get what I was looking for.

العاب تلبيس said...

very nice post thanks for it

Vinamilk Vinamilk said...

Video-games are action relax everyone's mind, with games such as Tiny Tanks or Tiny Planes and Tiny Planes Beta will be the attractive game people, in addition to games such as Run 3 unblocked or Run 4 unblocked or hacked unblocked games also very charismatic players. You try to play view, it is very attractive!

Megan Nicole said...

Thanks for sharing this quality information with us. I really enjoyed reading.
wingsio play | minecraft 2 | wingsio game | | minecraft2 | wingsio| wings io | minecraft | wingsio

Online Games said...

ان العاب الفلاش الان اصبحت لديها شهرة كبيرة شهرة عالمية يلعبها الكثير من الاشخاص بل الملايين من الاطفال الصغار حتى الكبار اصبحوا يلعبونها لأنها صراحة تحتوي على العاب جد رائعة ومميزة جدا يمكنك ان تستفيد منها في حياتك الشخصية العاب الفلاش تطورت بشكل كبير وسريع ايضا بحيث اصبح يمكنك لعبها في جهاز ذكي كان متوفر لديك يوجد ايضا العديد من اقسام الالعاب يوجد العاب المغامرات العاب مشوقة وحماسية يوجد العاب الاكشن المليئة بألعاب الحروب والاستراتيجية يوجد ايضا الالعاب الرياضية كألعاب كرة القدم او المضرب والعديد من الانواع ام القسم الذي انصحكم به شخصيا اعتبره من افضل اقسام الالعاب الحالية انها العاب سيارات جديدة ومتجددة كل يوم

Giải Trí Tổng Hợp said...

The blog or and best that is extremely useful to keep I can share the ideas. Age Of War 2
Big Farm | Slitherio | Tank Trouble
Of the future as this is really what I was looking for, I am very comfortable and pleased to come here. Thank you very much.
Happy Wheels | Goodgeme Empire |

Jasmine Thompson said...

Thanks for your sharing. Your article is very useful, it gives me more understanding. Please allow me to share a few:
Unblocked Games - Score Hero download - Baixar Photo Grid - baixar facebook movel

Williams Milada said...

I would like to thank you for the efforts you have made in writing this article.
cookie clicker | crossword puzzles game | dream league soccer | crossword puzzles game | dream league soccer apk | cookie clicker | crossword puzzles