Search This Blog

Wednesday, May 2, 2012

John Brennan finalizes the Obama Doctrine on TKs

On Monday, John Brennan gave the clearest and most detailed exegesis of the Obama Administration’s doctrine of targeted killings.  Brennan addressed the legal and ethical justifications for drone strikes, as well as their efficacy.  Although the speech in many ways built on previous speeches delivered by Harold Koh (State), Eric Holder (Justice), Jeh Johnson (Defense), and Stephen Preston (CIA), I noticed some changes in emphasis that are worth exploring.

As a first point, Brennan made a point of explaining what the IHL requirement of “military necessity” means – in particular “the requirement that the target have definite military value.”  It seems to me that this classical definition of military necessity is often overlooked by international lawyers.  The confusion stems from the fact that the concept of necessity exists in almost every legal regime, but it operates differently in each context.  Necessity in criminal law means something different than necessity in the Law of Armed Conflict.  In the former, it means something like “no other alternative” or “least restrictive means,” but in the latter it means that there is a military rationale (i.e. an expected military advantage to be gained) for the attack.  That technical meaning for military necessity goes back at least as far as Francis Lieber.

Second, Brennan said that the US was aware of the fact that its legal arguments in this context would establish precedents – presumably under customary law – and that the US was cognizant of the fact that our adversaries would then be following these rules in their deployment of drones against us.  This showed some sensitivity to what Jeremy Waldron, in the recent TK volume published by OUP, has called a “neutral principle.”

Third, Brennan’s general discussion of capture (if feasible) was couched as a policy preference, not an obligation under international law.  He was clear that there is no obligation under international law to attempt capture first (a bit of a contentious point with some human rights lawyers).  I think there was some confusion on this point after Holder’s speech at Northwestern, where Holder discussed the duty to capture.  If I understood Brennan correctly, the duty to capture (if feasible) only applies to citizens, like Anwar al-Awlaki, though he neither identified the source of this requirement nor did he explicitly state that the duty to capture applies as a Constitutional matter to citizens.  But presumably it is a constitutional norm stemming from Tennessee v. Garner and its progeny.  And presumably the requirement only applies outside of a traditional hot battlefield.  For my part, I wish he had been more explicit on these points.

As a final point, Brennan’s account of what constitutes a significant threat, and implicitly whether it is an imminent threat or not, was more convincing than what Holder said.  Brennan distinguished between hypothetical threats and actual threats – and excluded situations including “the mere possibility that a member of al-Qa’ida might try to attack us at some point in the future.”  To my ear, that sounds narrower and more convincing than Holder’s account, which emphasized (and maybe even over-emphasized) the use of force in its preemptive and preventive forms, both of which are controversial under international law.

230 comments:

«Oldest   ‹Older   201 – 230 of 230
hitlerbeauty said...

Margao Escorts
Independent Margao Escorts
Margao Call Girl
Margao Escorts Services
Margao College Girls Escorts
Escorts Services in Margao
Margao Escorts Agency
Escorts in Margao
Margao Escorts Service
Russian Margao Escorts
Margao Model Escorts
Margao Escort
Margao Call Girls
Call Girls in Margao
Call Girls Margao
Call Girl Margao

hitlerbeauty said...

Mapusa Escorts
Independent Mapusa Escorts
Mapusa Call Girl
Mapusa Escorts Services
Mapusa College Girls Escorts
Escorts Services in Mapusa
Mapusa Escorts Agency
Escorts in Mapusa
Mapusa Escorts Service
Russian Mapusa Escorts
Mapusa Model Escorts
Mapusa Escort
Mapusa Call Girls
Call Girls in Mapusa
Call Girls Mapusa
Call Girl Mapusa

hitlerbeauty said...

Mandrem Beach Escorts
Independent Mandrem Beach Escorts
Mandrem Beach Call Girl
Mandrem Beach Escorts Services
Mandrem Beach College Girls Escorts
Escorts Services in Mandrem Beach
Mandrem Beach Escorts Agency
Escorts in Mandrem Beach
Mandrem Beach Escorts Service
Russian Mandrem Beach Escorts
Mandrem Beach Model Escorts
Mandrem Beach Escort
Mandrem Beach Call Girls
Call Girls in Mandrem Beach
Call Girls Mandrem Beach
Call Girl Mandrem Beach

hitlerbeauty said...

Bicholim Escorts
Independent Bicholim Escorts
Bicholim Call Girl
Bicholim Escorts Services
Bicholim College Girls Escorts
Escorts Services in Bicholim
Bicholim Escorts Agency
Escorts in Bicholim
Bicholim Escorts Service
Russian Bicholim Escorts
Bicholim Model Escorts
Bicholim Escort
Bicholim Call Girls
Call Girls in Bicholim
Call Girls Bicholim
Call Girl Bicholim

hitlerbeauty said...

Dona Paula Escorts
Independent Dona Paula Escorts
Dona Paula Call Girl
Dona Paula Escorts Services
Dona Paula College Girls Escorts
Escorts Services in Dona Paula
Dona Paula Escorts Agency
Escorts in Dona Paula
Dona Paula Escorts Service
Russian Dona Paula Escorts
Dona Paula Model Escorts
Dona Paula Escort
Dona Paula Call Girls
Call Girls in Dona Paula
Call Girls Dona Paula
Call Girl Dona Paula

hitlerbeauty said...

Curchorem Cacora Escorts
Independent Curchorem Cacora Escorts
Curchorem Cacora Call Girl
Curchorem Cacora Escorts Services
Curchorem Cacora College Girls Escorts
Escorts Services in Curchorem Cacora
Curchorem Cacora Escorts Agency
Escorts in Curchorem Cacora
Curchorem Cacora Escorts Service
Russian Curchorem Cacora Escorts
Curchorem Cacora Model Escorts
Curchorem Cacora Escort
Curchorem Cacora Call Girls
Call Girls in Curchorem Cacora
Call Girls Curchorem Cacora
Call Girl Curchorem Cacora

hitlerbeauty said...

Cavelossim Beach Escorts
Independent Cavelossim Beach Escorts
Cavelossim Beach Call Girl
Cavelossim Beach Escorts Services
Cavelossim Beach College Girls Escorts
Escorts Services in Cavelossim Beach
Cavelossim Beach Escorts Agency
Escorts in Cavelossim Beach
Cavelossim Beach Escorts Service
Russian Cavelossim Beach Escorts
Cavelossim Beach Model Escorts
Cavelossim Beach Escort
Cavelossim Beach Call Girls
Call Girls in Cavelossim Beach
Call Girls Cavelossim Beach
Call Girl Cavelossim Beach

hitlerbeauty said...

Borim Escorts
Independent Borim Escorts
Borim Call Girl
Borim Escorts Services
Borim College Girls Escorts
Escorts Services in Borim
Borim Escorts Agency
Escorts in Borim
Borim Escorts Service
Russian Borim Escorts
Borim Model Escorts
Borim Escort
Borim Call Girls
Call Girls in Borim
Call Girls Borim
Call Girl Borim

hitlerbeauty said...

Candolim Beach Escorts
Independent Candolim Beach Escorts
Candolim Beach Call Girl
Candolim Beach Escorts Services
Candolim Beach College Girls Escorts
Escorts Services in Candolim Beach
Candolim Beach Escorts Agency
Escorts in Candolim Beach
Candolim Beach Escorts Service
Russian Candolim Beach Escorts
Candolim Beach Model Escorts
Candolim Beach Escort
Candolim Beach Call Girls
Call Girls in Candolim Beach
Call Girls Candolim Beach
Call Girl Candolim Beach

hitlerbeauty said...

Benaulim Escorts
Independent Benaulim Escorts
Benaulim Call Girl
Benaulim Escorts Services
Benaulim College Girls Escorts
Escorts Services in Benaulim
Benaulim Escorts Agency
Escorts in Benaulim
Benaulim Escorts Service
Russian Benaulim Escorts
Benaulim Model Escorts
Benaulim Escort
Benaulim Call Girls
Call Girls in Benaulim
Call Girls Benaulim
Call Girl Benaulim

hitlerbeauty said...

Baga Beach Escorts
Independent Baga Beach Escorts
Baga Beach Call Girl
Baga Beach Escorts Services
Baga Beach College Girls Escorts
Escorts Services in Baga Beach
Baga Beach Escorts Agency
Escorts in Baga Beach
Baga Beach Escorts Service
Russian Baga Beach Escorts
Baga Beach Model Escorts
Baga Beach Escort
Baga Beach Call Girls
Call Girls in Baga Beach
Call Girls Baga Beach
Call Girl Baga Beach

hitlerbeauty said...

Agonda Beach Escorts
Independent Agonda Beach Escorts
Agonda Beach Call Girl
Agonda Beach Escorts Services
Agonda Beach College Girls Escorts
Escorts Services in Agonda Beach
Agonda Beach Escorts Agency
Escorts in Agonda Beach
Agonda Beach Escorts Service
Russian Agonda Beach Escorts
Agonda Beach Model Escorts
Agonda Beach Escort
Agonda Beach Call Girls
Call Girls in Agonda Beach
Call Girls Agonda Beach
Call Girl Agonda Beach

nishakohli said...

Looking for a young and hot call girls in delhi aged between 18 and 21, We pride ourselves for having some of the best escort girls in Delhi. Busty escorts, Delhi is high class escort agency.


call girls vaishali

call girls vasundhra

call girls faridabad

call girls ghaziabad

call girls gurgaon

call girls noida

call girls greater noida



kiranchoudhary said...

Welcome to Black Label High Class Delhi Escorts service. We are the top escort agency in Delhi providing elite British call girls. Russian girls, College girls, House wife. contact us:- 9873940964

Delhi escorts #
Delhi escort #
Escorts in Delhi #
independent Delhi escorts #
delhi call girls #
call girls in delhi #
female escorts delhi #
house wife escrts delhi #
delhi escort service #



Ritika Panday said...

I am the most beautiful and understanding Delhi Escorts with peak quality of services and assure to persuade each and every consumer as well with exact delight and pleasure in their lives.

Delhi Escorts ####
delhi call girls ####
delhi escorts service ####

Call Girls In Nainital said...

Nainital Call Girl , Ramnagar Call Girl , Haldwani escort Service , Rudrapur escort Service , haridwar escort Service , Dehradun escort service , Rishikesh escort service , Mussoorie escort service ,Delhi escort service , In the escort service in nainital that oriental attractions engage your faculties and overwhelm your dreams a standout amongst the most sparkling diamonds of

bangaloreescort said...

andheri escorts service
andheri call girls
andheri escort
escorts in andheri
colaba escorts
colaba escorts service
colaba call girls
colaba escort
escorts in colaba
chennai escorts
chennai escorts service
chennai call girls
chennai escort
escorts in chennai

bangaloreescort said...

bangalore escort|
bangalore escorts|
bangalore escorts services|
bangalore call girls
bangalore escorts
bangalore escorts services
bangalore escort
bangalore call girls
bangalore escorts service

bangaloreescort said...

Mumbai Escorts
Mumbai Call Girls
navi mumbai escorts
juhu escorts
andheri escorts
thane escorts
colaba escorts
sakinaka escorts
vashi escorts
mumbai airport escorts

sumitaa said...

wadala escorts|kandivali escorts|kurla escorts|Chembur Escorts|vashi escorts|navi mumbai escorts|Andheri Escorts|

sumitaa said...

goregaon escorts|lower parel escorts|mahim escorts|miraroad escorts|mulund escorts|santacruz escorts|vikhroli escorts|airoli escorts|jaipur escorts

sumitaa said...

baroda escorts|
powai escorts|ahmedabad Escorts|
gandhinagar escorts|
naroda escorts|
vastrapur escorts|
maninagar escorts|
ashram road escorts|
CG Road escorts|
SG highway escorts

sumitaa said...

hyderabad escorts | Mumbai escorts |ahmedabad escorts|Mumbai Call Girls|Mumbai Escorts|
andheri escorts|
juhu escorts|
bandra escorts|
worli escorts

sumitaa said...

thane escorts|
kurla escorts|
dadar escorts|
colaba escorts|
chembur escorts
lokhandwala escorts

sumitaa said...

wadala escorts|
borivali escorts|hyderabad escorts|mumbai call girls|ahmedabad escorts

neelam nainital said...

Nainital Call Girl , Ramnagar Call Girl , Haldwani escort Service , Rudrapur escort Service , haridwar escort Service , Dehradun escort service , Rishikesh escort service , Mussoorie escort service ,Delhi escort service , In the escort service in nainital that oriental attractions engage your faculties and overwhelm your dreams a standout amongst the most sparkling diamonds of ...

disha oberoi said...

Rudrapur escort Service , Ramnagar escort Service , Haldwani escort Service , Rudrapur escort Service , haridwar escort Service , Dehradun escort service , Rishikesh escort service , Mussoorie escort service ,Nainital escort service , In the escort service in uttarakhand that oriental attractions engage your faculties and overwhelm your dreams a standout amongst the most sparkling diamonds of

chennaiescorts said...

Chennai escorts Services
Chennai escort call girls
Chennai escorts
chennai escorts
chennai call girls
chennai escort
chennai escorts
Chennai Escorts Services|
chennai escorts Agency|
chennai escorts|
chennai call girls|
chennai escorts service|
chennai escorts|
chennai call girls

chennaiescorts said...

chennai escorts
chennai escorts services
chennai call girls

aditiverma said...


Delhi escorts service is best option for get proper sexual satisfaction.come with us and enjoy the moment of life.call us on :-9873940964.visit my website:-
Delhi call girls ###
Escorts Service in Delhi ###
Delhi Escorts ###
Delhi Escorts service ###
Delhi call girls ###
Escorts Service in Delhi ###

«Oldest ‹Older   201 – 230 of 230   Newer› Newest»